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Immunomodulation: How lifestyle choices affect our immune system

Our bodies are in a constant state of change. Every choice we make throughout the day can change our energy levels, mood, focus, our bodies and our immune system. I’ve written a few articles on how vitamins, herbs spices and superfoods can help reinforce and protect your immune system. Still, there are a range of other factors that can greatly impact the efficacy of our immune system. In this week’s blog, I’d like to examine the lifestyle choices we can make to boost our immunity to disease, and what choices we might be making that are harmful to the gentle balance of our immune system. 

What is homeostasis?

To understand immunomodulation properly, we’ll start by getting an understanding of homeostasis. Homeostasis is like the body’s internal thermostat, keeping everything in balance. For instance, when you’re too hot, you sweat to cool down; when you’re too cold, you shiver to generate heat. Similarly, if your blood sugar gets too high after a meal, insulin kicks in to bring it back to normal levels. The immune system plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by defending the body against pathogens and helping to repair damaged tissues. It interacts with other systems, such as the nervous and endocrine systems, to coordinate responses to internal and external challenges. 

One key aspect of this interaction is through the inflammatory response. Inflammation is a normal immune reaction that helps the body fight infections and heal injuries. However, excessive or prolonged inflammation can disrupt homeostasis and lead to tissue damage and disease. The immune system also helps maintain homeostasis by recognizing and removing abnormal or damaged cells, such as cancer cells. Additionally, immune cells communicate with other cells in the body to regulate processes like metabolism and tissue repair. Homeostasis allows our bodies to perform all the necessary functions to keep us alive and healthy, but changes to our immune system can disrupt our homeostasis making us more prone to illness and disease.

Understanding immunomodulation

Now that we understand the critical role of homeostasis in maintaining our body’s equilibrium, let’s explore how immunomodulation fits into this intricate balance. Immunomodulation refers to the process of adjusting or regulating the activity of the immune system. This modulation can involve enhancing immune responses to combat infections or cancer cells, or dampening excessive immune activation in conditions like autoimmune diseases or allergies. Various factors, including medications, vaccines, and lifestyle choices, can influence immunomodulation. Understanding how these factors interact with our immune system allows us to use immunomodulation for therapeutic purposes, promoting health and well-being.

Diet and Nutrition

What we eat has a large impact on how our immune system responds to diseases and pathogens. Every bite of food we consume can help either boost or suppress our immune responses.  Macronutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, along with micronutrients including vitamins and minerals, form the building blocks essential for a robust immune response. Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables scavenge free radicals, while vitamins like vitamin C and E bolster immune cell function. If you’d like to learn more about how certain vitamins and nutrients can affect your immune system, please check out our blog on this topic. Keeping our gut healthy can also have a big impact on our immune response. Our guts are made up of millions of different microbes that help us digest our food and process energy and nutrients.

The gut is rich in immune cells that help regulate immune responses throughout the body. When the gut microbiota is imbalanced or when there’s inflammation in the gut, it can impair the function of these immune cells. This impairment may lead to decreased immune surveillance, making us more susceptible to infections and other immune-related disorders. By eating a wide array of fresh colourful fruit and vegetables we can provide our guts with the variety of nutrients it needs to maintain a healthy balance of bacteria. If you’d like to learn more about gut health and your immune system, we’ve written a blog on just that.

Exercise and Immunomodulation

Physical activity and exercise constitute another cornerstone in the realm of immunomodulation and has a profound impact on the body’s defence mechanisms. Engaging in regular physical activity not only strengthens muscles and enhances cardiovascular health but also bolsters immune function. Studies have shown that moderate exercise can boost the production of antibodies and immune cells, while also reducing inflammation throughout the body. However, it’s important to find a balance, as excessive or intense exercise may temporarily suppress immune function, leaving us more susceptible to infections. By incorporating a mix of cardiovascular, strength training, and flexibility exercises into our routines, we can help boost our immune response whilst also keeping ourselves fit and active.

Sleep and Stress

Quality sleep is essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, as it allows the body to repair and regenerate, while also facilitating the production of immune cells and cytokines. Our bodies have an internal clock, known as the circadian rhythm, which regulates various physiological processes, including immune function. Sleep disturbances, such as irregular sleep schedules or shift work, can disrupt these circadian rhythms. When these rhythms are disrupted, it can lead to dysregulation of immune responses, making individuals more susceptible to infections and inflammatory conditions. If you’d like more tips on getting a good night’s sleep, head over to the night section of our blog

Stress can also have a big impact on how our immune system functions. When we experience stress, our body releases stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. While these hormones are essential for the body’s fight-or-flight response, chronic stress can lead to prolonged elevation of cortisol levels, which can suppress the immune system. High levels of cortisol can interfere with the function of immune cells, such as lymphocytes and cytokines, which play crucial roles in defending the body against infections. Chronic stress can interfere with sleep quality and duration, leading to sleep disturbances such as insomnia or fragmented sleep. As mentioned earlier, inadequate sleep can weaken the immune system, increasing susceptibility to infections and impairing the body’s ability to mount an effective immune response.


Our lifestyle choices play a significant role in modulating our immune system and maintaining homeostasis within our bodies. By understanding the intricate balance of immunomodulation, we can make informed decisions to enhance our immune responses and promote overall health and well-being. By eating a healthy and more diverse diet, we can give our bodies the fuel they need to support a robust and effective immune system. By ensuring that we get enough sleep and stay calm throughout the day we can foster a better environment for our immune system to respond quickly and effectively to illness and disease, helping us to stay healthy, fit and active.

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